Amoeba,Naegleria Fowleri


Introduction:
N. fowleri is a thermophilic organism, can tolerate temperatures up to 45 C and is a free living excavate.


Classification:

Class: Heterolobosea: Heterolobosea are discristate excavates, meaning they are members of what may be monophyletic grouping.
Phylum: Percolozoa: It helps make the species live in soil, freshwater, and on feces.
Kingdom: Protista: This type is usually unicellular, but sometimes multicellular. Most Protistas live in water, soil, or the human body.
Order: Schizopyrenida: This is a type of Heterolobosea makes a formation of fruiting bodies in the latter.
Species: Fowleri:
Genus: Naegleria: This means that the type of vahlkampfiidae has a flagellate stage.
Domain: Eukaryota: It gives the cell mitochondria, cholroplasts and glogi apparatus.
Family: Vahlkampfiidae: This means that the type of schizopyrendia is naegleria.

Characteristics
Respond: The moniker makes the naegleria sound like tiny zombies when it is in the human body, trying to find the skull. Somtimes when in the body it destroys tissues to get into the brain.
Reproduce: This species reproduce by the asexual cell division so it multiplies by it self. The living thing only can reproduce in the trophozite stage
Cells: The naegleria fowleri is a unicelluler amoeba
Grow and Develop: This species does not grow, however there are diffrent stages that help it meet its needs. the three stages are, 1.) Trophozoite 2.) Cyst 3.) Flagellate
external image Naegleria_fowleri_lifecycle_stages.JPG2.)Cyst 3.)Flagellate 1.) Trophozoite
Cyst: This is a stage when the naegleria fowleri is running out of the nutrients that it needs.
Trophozoite: The Trophozoite can stand up to 42 C before it goes to the cyst. When it is free living, it has a structure called the food cup,
this helps the Trophozoite to ingest bacteria and algae. When the Trophozoite is in a human host they use the same structure to ingest red blood
cells, white blood cells and tissues.
Flagellate:
The flagellate stage is entered as a response to a change in pH or ion concentration of the amoeba’s environment. In just minutes to a few hours trophozoites differentiate into bi-flagellated cells


Needs
Air: this species does not breath air.
Water: This type of amoeba does not drink water.
Food: The naegleria fowleri grazes off algae and bacteria in the sediment. When it gets into the human body it can use the brain as a food source.
Habitat:This type of amoeba can be found in places like:
Warm lakes, ponds, and rock pits
  • Mud puddles
  • Warm, slow-flowing rivers, especially those with low water levels
  • Untreated swimming pools and spas
  • Untreated well water or untreated municipal water
  • Hot springs and other geothermal water sources
  • Thermally polluted water, such as runoff from power plants
  • Aquariums
  • Soil, including indoor dust
Naegleria can’t live in salt water and cannot survive in properly treated swimming pools or in treated municipal water
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CTNqSsZlvds

Physical Adaptations:

1.) When the nutrients are in need and the tempeture is to low or it gets to dry and cold then the the species change into the cyst stage until it can find a better habitat to stay in.
The cyst stage is like a back up stage. Cyst will keeps the species in a ball and drifts until it finds a better habitat to live in.
2.) If the surrounding tempeture changes then the trophozoite form can transform into more freely moving flagellate.Whenever the environment changes, then from the trophozoite stage
it can change into flagellate. The flagellate form is usually the stage where it feeds and searches for food.
3.) When the species goes into the human host, the only way to get in is the nostril passage only that is how to get in the brain. When the Naegleria Fowleri
enters the body only in cyst stage or trophozoite stage is how it can get in. Usually it is in the trophozoite stage becasue the trophozoite can destroy or
make the passage clear from any obsticales in the way, if this happens then thats how the human gets infected.
4.)The tropozoites can only travel by either the tempetures changing or by pseudopodia.
The pseudopodia form at different points along the cell, thus allowing the trophozoite to change directions.


Behavioral Adaptations:

1.) When the organism is in the cyst stage it is like hibernating. The tempature is cold so it makes a ball to make itself more warmer and has a storage of food for that occasion.
2.) If the surrounding tempeture changes then the trophozoite form can transform into more freely moving flagellate.Whenever the environment changes, then from the trophozoite stage
it can change into flagellate. The flagellate form is usually the stage where it feeds and searches for food.



Conclusion:

This organism is very complex and unique. It has different stages to help it survive. It is like 3 different kind of organisms put in together. This was a very eye opening research on the Naegleria fowleri because how
it has adapted to survive in the human body and how it can feed or use the brain as a need for food.


By: Jae Jeong